Hammer Toes

What is it?

Hammertoe is a contracture (bending) of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint (PIPJ) of the second, third, fourth, or fifth toes.

What causes it?

Hammertoe deformities are usually caused by a muscle imbalance in the foot, which may be due to; flat feet, traumatic injuries, neuromuscular diseases or inflammatory diseases.

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms include callus and corns on the tops of the toes due to rubbing on the inside of the shoe and increased pressure at the ball of the foot.

How is it treated?

If left untreated the toes can become fixed deformities and cannot be easily straightened.